Upper respiratory tract infections involve generally nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx and larynx causing sore throat, cough, nasal discharge or common cold. Pharyngitis, laryngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, otitis media are inflammatory status of upper respiratory tract mucous membranes. They give burning sensations, difficulty in swallowing, pain, sneezing and negging feeling stuffy nose. These conditions are usually short and mild. However, if neglected, they can lead to chronic inflammation or lower respiratory tract infections.
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Genitourinary tract infections, caused by bacteria, protozoa and less frequently by fungus (Candida spp.) or virus, represent one of the most frequent diseases in daily clinical practice. The incidence is different both in terms of sex and age. In particular, after infancy and up to 55 years they hit mainly due to obstructive problems and bladder emptying related to prostatic hypertrophy.
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Oral infections are one of the most common pathologies in general population, mostly due to complications of infections associated with poor oral hygiene. Infections cause pain, swelling and inflammations. Many types of infections can affect the oral cavity.
The conditions, in acute or chronic form, can be related to specific areas of the mouth: if infections hit the gums, for example, they cause a gingivitis, if they involve the tongue we have a glossitis; if it causes edema of part or of all the palat mucosa, they can be
generally defined as stomatitis or mucositis. As a consequence of such inflammations, we could have secondary infections such as candidiasis.
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The intestine is an important defence barrier for the body The gastrointestinal tract (GI) gathers 2/3 of the overall immune system thanks to a complex microbiological ecosystem. The most important effects of GI microflora are to protect the host from infections and pathogens development, promoting the establishment and the activity of immunological tissues. It is very important to maintain intestinal ecosystem or to restore the balance after an antibiotic therapy in order to prevent, for instance, the Helicobacter pylori infection. Helicobacter pylori is the most important causative agent of chronic gastritis, also known as “nonspecific” and it is responsible for more
than 90-95% of duodenal ulcers, too. The disease causing relationship between the ulcers and the infection is supported by studies, which have shown that by the eradication of the bacteria the signs of inflammation may be initially decreased and later removed.
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Skin disorders are among the most frequent, sometimes a little insidious but often very annoying conditions. Infections, stress, exaggerated UV ray exposure, pollutants can lead to the appearance of serious or light cutaneous manifestations. The human skin is covered by several bacterial populations that change according to the density and composition of the anatomical region. Some bacteria live on normal skin and cause no harm, some bacteria invade normal skin, break it and cause infections. Skin diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. The most common skin bacterialpathogenes are Staphylococci while Herpes simplex is most common viral skin diseases. Staphylococci bacteria can cause a wide range of infections. There are many types of Staphylococci but most infections are caused by a group called Staphylococcus aureus. This group includes Staphylococcus aureus methicillin-resistant (MRSA) which is resistant to certain antibiotics that are commonly used for Staphylococcus infection.