The human body is endowed with a complex system of defence protecting from external attacks of virus, bacteria and pathogens in general. We are talking about the immune system, formed by different organs and cells able to create a barrier against diseases. Immuno-stimulants are then substances mainly acting by a non-specific stimulation of the mechanisms of immune defence.
Propolis: scientific studies
The immune-stimulant activity is one of the most studied. More than 1.000 studies have been conducted on different varieties and type of extracts.
Positive effects were verified on LPS and consequently a significant decrease in proinflammatory cytokines and on Leukocytes in the blood. Another scientific study has highlighted an improvement of the innate immunity by the activation of the regulation of the expression TLR-2 and TR-4 and of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 and IL-6) increasing the production of macrophages from spleen, enhancing the identification of the microorganisms and activating the lymphocytes containing the antigen.