Rhinitis is characterized by inflammation of the nasal mucosa due to infectious (viruses, bacteria), anatomical (excessive sensitivity and/or number of capillaries in the nasal mucosa) or irritant factors. The main symptom of rhinitis is rhinorrhoea, namely the nasal discharge (due to hyper secretion of mucus by the inflamed mucosa), which is accompanied by sneezing and a nagging feeling stuffy nose.
Otitis is an inflammatory process of acute or chronic type, related to ears and caused by pathogenic organisms of various types that can be localized in correspondence of ears both directly and indirectly. Depending on the part of the ear affected by the inflammation, otitis are distinguished: external, middle and inner (labyrinthitis).
Propolis: scientific studies
It was studied the effect of Propolis on sneezing and irritation of the nasal mucosa in rhinitis and it was concluded that Propolis may be effective in relieving symptoms in particular through the inhibition of histamine. An inflammation induced in epithelial cells of medium ear can be inhibited by Propolis through the inhibition of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and COX – 2. Moreover, Propolis has antioxidant effects, which reduce the need of expression endogenous superoxide dismutase.